is silent, so it will be used in the example for each vowel.

 

Short Vowels

Long Vowels

"a" as in had

Pathaq

"a" in father

Qamets2

"e" in bed

Segol

"ay" in day

Tsayray

"i" in igloo

Qhireq

"i" in machine

Long Qhireq

"u" as in bull

Qibuts

"u" as in flute

Shureq

"o" as in top

Qamets2

"o" in host

Qolam

 

Super Short Vowel (Sometimes Silent)

Sometimes silent;
sometimes like the short almost-vowel "e" in because1

Sh'wa

 

Dipthongs

"ai" in aisle

There is no name for this.

"ai" in aisle

There is no name for this.

 

Notes

1 It is complicated.  The sh'wa is vocal when it begins a syllable, and silent when it ends (or closes) a syllable.
     In the middle of a word, the sh'wa is vocal after a long vowel, and silent after a short vowel.
     When two sh'was occur together in the middle of a word, the first closes a syllable and is silent; the second begins the next syllable and is vocal.
     A sh'wa under a letter which is doubled (i.e. has a dot in the middle of it) is vocal.

 

2 I have no idea how you distinguish between the long-vowel and short-vowel versions of Qamets. My instinct is that it doesn't make much of a difference unless you are a cantor, singing in a synagogue service.