Celestial Navigation Course, 2018

Instructed by Bob Goethe

British Columbia Offshore Sailing Association

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8




Overall Course Objective

That by the end of this course, you should be able to navigate yourself across any ocean in the world with no more hardware than your sextant and a wristwatch.




Pre-Class Orientation and Preparation Emails

These emails should be considered part of the "core curriculum" for this course. They introduce important concepts.

2017.10.03 - Six different ways to get
correct time.

2017.10.26 - Sextant lore.

2017.10.27b - Daily rhythm of the offshore
celestial navigator.

2017.10.27d - Getting time from your GPS unit.

2017.10.27e - Do not use SiriusXM satellite
radio time signals.

2017.10.27f - Pub. 249 vs. Pub. 229.

2017.11.04 - A question of precision.

2017.11.04a - "...like taking a bath with your
socks on" + Why even study celestial navigation
to begin with?

2017.11.09 - Required items for class.

2017.11.10 - Bowditch, Budlong, and
Compass Bearing

2017.11.12 - Taking sights from a platform
ashore and "Dip".

2017.11.12a - Determining dip on a beach
with surf.

2017.11.16 - Bowditch editions. The
navigational triangle.

2017.11.22 - Freakest Thou Not Out

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8




Pre-Class Homework

Ensure you have the following pieces in place for all classes:

Homework to do prior to Saturday 1:

Read Budlong Chapters 1 to 6.

This is heavy going, but do your best. Make notes in the margins. Write down questions you have. We will discuss them in class, and review all of this content. The homework assignment following the first class will be to reread Budlong Chapters 1 to 6. So you will have plenty of opportunity to get this foundational material under your belt.

Watch Bob's "Foundational Concepts in Celestial Navigation" Video (43 minutes 16 seconds long)

This will help you wrap your mind around what you just read in Budlong...and will keep you from having such a steep learning curve when Saturday 1's class begins.




Note re "Class Plans" vs. "Actual": Bob intentionally plans more than he expects to cover, as he never wants to run out of material. Further, Bob will always dynamically vary the pacing and content of the class based on student preferences and input. That said, the class plans do remain as a broad statement of what Bob hopes and expects to have covered by the end of the course.




Class Plans

Saturday 1 Objectives:

Saturday 1 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Download "I cannot hear you"

Q & A from pre-class reading

Geographic Point (GP)

Relationship between sextant angle and distance from GP
   Materials: laser pointer, globe, credit card

Circle of Position (COP)

Line of Position (LOP)

Measuring heights of celestial objects with sextant
   Materials: sextant, tennis ball, curtain rod and window

Reading a vernier scale as on the the Davis Mark 3
   Materials: Bob/Carly's Mark 3s

Reading a drum micrometer scale as on the Davis Model 15 or a Tamaya
   Materials: Bill's Davis Model 15 and Bob's Tamaya

Marcq St. Hilaire - 1875

Three sun sights from single location.
   Materials: Download Ver. 1 of Sight Reduction Worksheet.
                    Download plotting sheet optimized for Crofton.

Shot 1
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 19, 2018
   Time:                                      09:08:52 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PDT + 7 = UT
   DR:                                        48° 52.0' N    123° 38.4' W
   Height of eye:                        8 feet
   Index error:                           2.0 OFF
   Watch error:                         1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    35° 33.9'

Shot 2
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 19, 2018
   Time:                                      12:35:33 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PST + 7 = UT
   DR:                                     48° 52.0' N    123° 38.4' W
   Height of eye:                     8 feet
   Index error:                        2.0 OFF
   Watch error:                      1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                 63° 06.2'

Shot 3
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 19, 2018
   Time:                                      16:01:20 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PST + 7 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 52.0' N    123° 38.4' W
   Height of eye:                       8 feet
   Index error:                          2.0 OFF
   Watch error:                        1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                   48° 32.1'

Q & A from pre-class reading

Geographic Point (GP)

Relationship between sextant angle and distance from GP

Circle of Position (COP)

Line of Position (LOP)

Measuring heights of celestial objects with sextant

Reading a vernier scale as on the the Davis Mark 3

Reading a drum micrometer scale as on the Davis Model 15 or a Tamaya

Marcq St. Hilaire - 1875

Sight reduction worksheet, Sight #1.


Review video of class 1 as desired.

Target study time: 5 hours

Read Budlong, chapters 1 to 6

Make a note of whatever questions you have.
We will address them next day.

Seek to do sight reduction and plotting of
Saturday 1 sights that we didn't do together
in class.

If you complete everything and time is hanging
heavy on your hands, print out three fresh sight
reduction worksheets and a blank plotting chart,
and do them all again.

Working out sights is like learning to play a
piece on the piano. Practice again and again
to develop the ability to complete the piece
more smoothly/quickly. Your ultimate goal is
to be able to complete a sextant shot, sight
reduction worksheet and plot an LOP in 16
minutes.

If you don't finish, don't worry. We can work
these problem(s) together next day.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 2 Objectives:

Saturday 2 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A from homework

Adjusting sextants to reduce three sources of error.                                       
   - perpendicularity error
   - side error
   - index error
   Materials: Download user manual for Carly's Davis Mark 3.
                    Download user manual for Bill's Davis Mark 15.

Multiple sun sights while under way: the running fix
   (a.k.a. "advancing the LOP")
   Materials: Download Ver. 1 of Sight Reduction Worksheet.
                    Download plotting sheet optimized for Ucluelet.

Shot 1
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 20, 2018
   Time:                                      07:13:35 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PDT + 7 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 16.5' N    125° 35.0' W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          2.5' OFF
   Watch error:                         1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    15° 48.8'

Shot 2
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 20, 2018
   Time:                                      12:40:50 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PDT + 7 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 42.0' N    126° 07.2' W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          2.5' OFF
   Watch error:                         1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    62° 54.4'

Shot 3
   Object:                                    Sun LL
   Date:                                      June 20, 2018
   Time:                                      18:30:02 PDT
   Zone time conversion to UT: PDT + 7 = UT
   DR:                                       49° 21.0' N    126° 50.0 W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          2.5' OFF
   Watch error:                         1 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    26° 43.8


Convert from Compass to true bearings: CDMVTAE
   Can dead men vote twice at Easter?
   Materials: Compass deviation card
                    Calculate Magnetic Variation
                    World Magnetic Declination (a.k.a. Variation) Chart

Q & A from homework

Plotting last week's sights to get a fix.

Adjusting our own sextants (Davis Mk 3 and Davis Mk 15) to remove errors

Doing another sight reduction, plus working on ways to conceptualize the workflow in sight reduction.

(Technical difficulties prevented us from plotting sights from offshore near Ucluelet. We'll pick this up next week.)

Review video of class 2 as desired.

Target study time: 5 hours

Read Budlong, pp. 57-65, 76-88, 101-104

If you get a break in the winter-time overcast skies of Vancouver
Island, take one or more sun sights. Record times and altitudes.
Perform sight reduction and plotting. Time permitting, we will rework
your sights together next day.

As before, make a note of whatever questions you have. We will
address them next day.

Seek to do sight reduction and plotting of Saturday 2 sights
that we didn't do together in class.

If you complete everything and time is hanging heavy on your
hands, print out three fresh sight reduction worksheets and
a blank plotting chart, and do them all again.

If you don't finish, don't worry. We can work these problem(s)
together next day.

Take sun shots outdoors whenever possible. Do sight reduction
and plotting. Save your work to present to class.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 3 Objective:

Saturday 3 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A from homework

Review any outdoor shots by Bill/Carly.
Download Big Beach Plotting Sheet.

Low altitude shots

Planet sights                                              

Star sights
   First point of Aries.

Nautical twilight

Star identification
   Materials: Download Bob's charts for key navigational stars.

Using hand bearing compass plus Heavens-Above to find stars.
   Convert from true to compass bearings: TVMDCSE
      True virgins make dull companions Saturday evening

Star/planet fix using Crofton plotting sheet,
   followed by running fix using Sun.

   Materials: Download ver. 2 of sight reduction worksheet

Shot 1
   Object:                                       Venus
   Date:                                         Nov. 21, 2018
   Time:                                      07:02:46 PST
   Zone time conversion to UT: PST + 8 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 51.8' N    123° 38.7' W
   Height of eye:                       8 feet
   Index error:                          1.5' ON
   Watch error:                         16 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    25° 32.2'

Shot 2
   Object:                                       Regulus
   Date:                                         Nov. 21, 2018
   Time:                                      07:01:17 PST
   Zone time conversion to UT: PST + 8 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 51.8' N    123° 38.7' W
   Height of eye:                       8 feet
   Index error:                          1.5' ON
   Watch error:                         16 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    52° 11.4'

Shot 3
   Object:                                       Pollux
   Date:                                         Nov. 21, 2018
   Time:                                      07:02:46 PST
   Zone time conversion to UT: PST + 8 = UT
   DR:                                       48° 51.8' N    123° 38.7' W
   Height of eye:                       8 feet
   Index error:                          1.5' ON
   Watch error:                         16 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    47° 17.1'

Q & A from homework

Carly takes the lead in walking us through sight reduction of her first sun sight.

Plotting Carly's sight.

Plotting exercise, which involves running fixes.

Introduction to star-finding.

Review video of class 3 as desired.

Target study time: 5 hours

Read Budlong, p. 76-88

Be able to produce from memory the following star charts:

  • Draw a sketch of the Big Dipper with Polaris,
    Arcturus, Spica and Regulus.

    Label Polaris, Dubhe, Alkaid, Arcturus, Spica
    and Regulus.


  • Draw a sketch of the Orion asterism.

    Label Betelgeuse, Rigel, Alnilam, Aldebaran,
    Capella, Pollux, Procyon,
    and Sirius,


  • Draw a sketch of Polaris, the Big Dipper,
    Cassiopeia, and "The Navigator's Triangle".

    Label Altair, Deneb, and Vega.


This is rote memorization, friends. So for example...
Get a stack of 100 blank pieces of paper.
Flip your printed star chart upside down. Draw
the the Orion asterism on a blank page. Label everything.

Flip your star chart right-side up, and compare what you
just produced with the chart. Throw away your hand-written
chart. Start over with a blank sheet and do the same again.

Repeat this 50 or 60 times until you can produce the Orion
asterism without error. Quit for now, then do this entire
exercise again tomorrow.



Saturday Class 4 will start off with each of us (including Bob!)
taking blank sheets of paper and producing these star charts
from memory.

Seek to do sight reduction and plotting of Saturday 3 sights
that we didn't do together in class. HOWEVER, THE
HOMEWORK PRIORITY FOR THIS WEEK IS STAR
CHART MEMORIZATION.

Take sun/planet/star shots outdoors whenever possible. Do sight
reduction and plotting. Save your work to present to class.



Comment: Ironically, star identification may be easier
in Edmonton than in Crofton/Ucluelet. There is so much light
pollution in Edm. that only the brightest stars are visible...
and it is just these are "navigational stars". It can be
harder to pick out the key stars when you can see
thousands of other stars in the sky.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 4 Objectives:

Saturday 4 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A from homework

Quiz: star charts.

Review any outdoor shots by Bill/Carly.

Universal plotting sheet
   Materials: Download universal plotting sheet.

Sight averaging
   Materials: Download ver. 3 of sight reduction worksheet.
                    David Burch's Article on Sight Averaging
                    Bowditch (2017), Section 1805, page 304

Moon shots

Moon/star shot, with advanced LOP and sun shot, with sight
averaging for moon.

Shot 1
   Object:                                    Venus
   Date:                                       Nov. 23, 2018
   Zone time conversion to UT:  AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                        45° 33.2' N    140° 16.4' W
   Height of eye:                        6 feet
   Index error:                           2.3' ON
   Watch error:                          14 sec fast
   Shot 1a
      Time:                                  07:01:10 AKST
      Height sextant:                  23° 01.5'
   Shot 1b
      Time:                                  07:02:45 AKST
      Height sextant:                  23° 06.0'
   Shot 1c
      Time:                                  07:04:05 AKST
      Height sextant:                  23° 16.2'
   Shot 1d
      Time:                                  07:04:57 AKST
      Height sextant:                  23° 20.7'

Shot 2
   Object:                                     Moon
   Date:                                       Nov. 23, 2018
   Time:                                      07:06:16 AKST
   Zone time conversion to UT: AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                       45° 33.2' N    140° 16.4' W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          2.3' ON
   Watch error:                         14 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    6° 45.9'

Shot 3
   Object:                                     Sun
   Date:                                       Nov. 21, 2018
   Time:                                      14:10:58 AKST
   Zone time conversion to UT: AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                       45° 12.2' N    139° 47.1' W
   Height of eye:                       8 feet
   Index error:                          1.5' ON
   Watch error:                         16 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    52° 11.4'

Q & A from homework

Star location quiz.

Sight reduction of star and planet sights.

Use universal plotting sheet to plot sights

Technical problems with Bob's computer,
(probably related to the recently discovered
Specter and Meltdown vulnerabilities, and the
fact that Intel's first fix actually produced
spontaneous reboots rather than fixing the problem)
meant that there were no class recordings taken today.

Target study time: 5 hours

Take sun/planet/star/moon shots outdoors
whenever possible. Do sight reduction and
plotting. Save your work to present to class.

Bob is to produce an annotated copy of his sight
reduction worksheet. Bill and Carly are to think
about ways to improve it.

Use universal plotting sheet and sight averaging for
these sights you take on your own.

Seek to do sight reduction and plotting of Saturday sights
that we didn't do together in class.


REGARDING THE FINAL EXAM

  • It will be open book. Time is unlimited. The goal is
    not to do it fast, but to do it right.

  • You may take the next 2 weeks to finish it.

  • It includes one problem that we have not yet dealt
    with: the noon sight. Play with it as best you can.
    Take a look at Budlong pp. 60-61. We
    will discuss this in class this coming Saturday.

  • Scan and send your results back to Bob as you have them.

  • If you get something wrong, Bob will give you some
    pointers, and ask you to redo that question.

  • Once you redo the exam (or a piece of it), scan it
    again and email it to Bob.

Bob will post the exam as well as a worksheet for doing the
classic noon sight here once he has checked and rechecked
the exam,to make sure he himself has not made any
bone-headed errors.

If you have not yet read Sailing Alone Around the
World
by Joshua Slocum, then reading this book is
now part of your homework. You can download it
from here.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 5 Objectives:

Saturday 5 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A from homework

Quiz: star charts.

Review any outdoor shots by Bill/Carly.

Great circle routes.
   Materials: Download great circle calculation worksheet.
                    globe, dental floss
                    Budlong, p. 66
                    RealCalc Scientific Calculator
                       for Android, or other scientific calculator
                    Great Circle Mapper
                    Great Circle Course Calculator
                    Rhumb Line Calculator

Convert from true to compass course: TVMDCSE
   True virgins make dull companions Saturday evening

Do great circle initial course calculation from Port Hardy to
   Dutch Harbor, Aleutian Islands.

Do great circle initial course calculation from Dutch Harbor
   to Tokyo.

Use great circle calculation worksheet to calculate
   a star sight that Pub. 249 Vol. 3 cannot deal with.

The "hypothetical shot" when sight averaging
   Materials: Bob's essay on sight averaging.

Shot 1
   Object:                                     Deneb
   Date:                                       Nov. 25, 2018
   Time:                                      09:41:00 AKST
   Zone time conversion to UT: AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                       53° 53.4' N    166° 32.5' W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          0'
   Watch error:                         0 sec
   Height sextant:                    17° 15.0'

Shot 2
   Object:                                    Arcturus
   Date:                                       Nov. 25, 2018
   Zone time conversion to UT:  AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                        53° 53.4' N    166° 32.5' W
   Height of eye:                        6 feet
   Index error:                           0'
   Watch error:                          0 sec
   Shot 1a
      Time:                                  09:42:04 AKST
      Height sextant:                  45° 59.0'
   Shot 1b
      Time:                                  09:43:15 AKST
      Height sextant:                  45° 56.0'
   Shot 1c
      Time:                                  09:44:10 AKST
      Height sextant:                  46° 07.5'
   Shot 1d
      Time:                                  09:45:20 AKST
      Height sextant:                  46° 15.4'

We step back from the curriculum to :

  • Design our own worksheet where items
    are arranged in a way that seems more logical
    to us

  • Discuss custom planisphere construction
    that is optimized for celestial navigators.


Items from the core curriculum that remain for us:

  • Finish designing our own worksheet.

  • Learn to solve sight reduction problems / do
    great circle calcuations mathematically.

  • Learn to do moon sights


Revised homework assignment:

  • Bob to send worksheet revision
    (such as it is at present) to Bill & Carly.
    (Format will be for Adobe Illustrator.)

  • Carly will start reworking some of our
    older sights and entering data in the
    new worksheet.

  • Carly will give thought to Inuit navigation,
    and how it might be expressed in art.

  • Bob will review his notes on polar
    navigation, and highlight portions that
    might be of interest to Bill and Carly.

  • Bill will work on developing a
    planisphere optimized for the
    navigator.

  • Bill will research whether there is a
    planetarium in Victoria we can work with.

Review video of class 5 as desired.

Target study time: 5 hours

Read Budlong, pp. 65-69

Read this essay to help you think about whether
doing great circle calculations are worthwhile
for the cruise you are planning.

Redo the sight reduction of all three sun shots from
Saturday 1, using great circle calculation worksheet.

(Bob takes about 1 minute to get sight reduction data
from Pub. 249. He can do it with a calculator and
great circle worksheet in 4 minutes when he practices,
6 minutes when he doesn't.)

Take sun/planet/star/moon shots outdoors
whenever possible. Do sight reduction and
plotting. Save your work to present to class.

For any and all outdoor sights, shoot in groups
of four, and use sight-averaging.

Use universal plotting sheet and sight averaging.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 6 Objectives:

Saturday 6 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A from homework

Quiz: star charts.

Review any outdoor shots by Bill/Carly.

Using an artificial horizon

Conceptualizing sight reduction differently: MA (or t) vs LHA

Using Volume 1 of Pub. 249 for star shots.
   Materials: Download Pub. 249, Vol 1 (2015 Epoch - valid
                        until 2023)

Emergency navigation:

  • You have no accurate watch: practical exercises.

  • You have no sextant

    • Zero altitude sun shots (pp. A3-A4 in Almanac)
            Materials: Download zero-altitude example

    • Improvised kamal (accurate to 15' at altitudes up to 15°)

Protecting your hand-held GPS with a Faraday cage.
      Wrapping GPS in foil and dropping in a baggie
      will not work. Right materials. Wrong sequence.

The role of a mechanical watch.

Brainstorm on public art possiblities that might interest
Carly.

Check over one of Carly's sight reduction solutions.

Reduce and plot one of Carly's actual sun sights.

Carry on with fine tuning the design of the
sight reduction worksheet.

Introduce the emergency noon site technique
as used by Slocum et al.

Homework assignment: Keep playing with the SR worksheet.

Reduce actual sights you take if sky clear, otherwise use
one of our earlier exercises.

Review video of class 6 as desired.

Read Budlong, pp. 42, 47 (first paragraph),
60-62, 88-89, 104-108, 127-135

Read Bob's perspective on the role of the noon sight.

Your Jedi skills are all-but complete now. Only
one thing remains: You must face Darth Vader
use your sextant to fix your position at sea.

Discuss the possibility of a navigation cruise this
summer in Bill's Gracewaves.

Other Resources (retrieved on 21 Nov. 2017)

Free Online Nautical Almanac.
   You may also download Pub. 249 here.
   Accuracy of Almanac data downloaded from
   this site is excellent, but not guaranteed.

The gold standard for online celestial data is the
   US Naval Observatory calculator.

You can play around with Pub. 229 when
all this starts to get boring by clicking here.

However, when you can pack two
volumes of Pub. 249 (at 4.2 lbs) in
your suitcase (plus a scientific
calculator on your cellphone for
northern stars) OR you can pack
six volumes of Pub. 229 (at 12.6 pounds)
in your suitcase, most sailors
choose Pub. 249.

There is an interesting discussion of time in this
YouTube video, particularly from 1:26 to 16:15.

How accurate is celestial navigation, given that it uses
spherical trigonometry on a non-spherical earth?

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 7 Objectives:

Saturday 7 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Update from Bill on his planisphere.

Revisit the classic noon sight.

Work a moon shot.

Review any outdoor shots by Carly.

Take one of Carly's sights and rework it by hand as a
Great Circle calculation.

Moon Shot
   Object:                                     Moon
   Date:                                       Nov. 23, 2018
   Time:                                      07:06:16 AKST
   Zone time conversion to UT: AKST + 9 = UT
   DR:                                       45° 33.2' N    140° 16.4' W
   Height of eye:                       6 feet
   Index error:                          2.3' ON
   Watch error:                         14 sec fast
   Height sextant:                    6° 45.9'

Bill comments on his planisphere plus
his comprehensive documentation of the worksheet.

Work out theory of noon sight using a globe.

Do two noon sights

Do a moon sight

Reduce one of Carly's sights and plot it.

Review class on YouTube.


We have made major modifications to our sight reduction
worksheet, and a number of modifications to other
resources. The downloads are scattered all over the place.

Here is a one-stop shop for downloads:

Sight reduction worksheet

Bill's glossary/worksheet documentation

The worksheet captures pretty much the entire sight-reduction
process. Hence, Bill's glossary is a single-document summary of most of
what there is to know about celestial navigation.

To check your work:

  • Best Android sight reduction applet

  • Best sight reduction page on the web

Universal plotting sheet (8.5 x 11)

Universal plotting sheet (commercially printed 13.5 x 14)

Ucluelet-optimized plotting sheet

Croftton-optimized plotting sheet

Bob's original star charts

Bob's revised star charts

Bill's planisphere

Great Circle/Sight-reduction Worksheet

Great Circle Mapper

Great Circle Course Calculator

World Magnetic Declination (i.e. Variation) Chart

Free online Nautical Almanac

Official US Naval Observatory calculator

Pub. 249, Vol. 1 for stars

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 8 Objectives:

Saturday 8 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

(Optional: sight averaging with Carly's sun shots)

Doing great circle calculations

Final Exam

This area will be filled in after class has finished.

To be determined.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8





Saturday 9 Objectives:

Saturday 8 Class Plan

Actual

Mid-Week Homework

Class time: 5 hours

Q & A

Work/discuss the final exam

This area will be filled in after class has finished.

To be determined.

Course Objective

Pre-Class Orientation

Pre-Class Homework

Saturday 1

Saturday 2

Saturday 3

Saturday 4

Saturday 5

Saturday 6

Saturday 7

Saturday 8